Today, Montenegro celebrates the Day of Statehood
, in memory of the events of July 13, 1878, when at the Berlin Congress of Montenegro was recognized as an independent state. In addition, on the same date in 1941 in Montenegro began a popular uprising against fascism.
July 13 in Yugoslavia was celebrated as the Day of the uprising of the people of Montenegro. From July 2005, according to the new law on public holidays, on July 13, Montenegro is celebrated as the Day of Statehood, unlike previous years, when it was the Day of the uprising of the Montenegrin people during the Second World War.History
July 13, 1878 at the Berlin Congress, which ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 most European countries voted to proclaim Montenegro the 27th independent countries of the world. Montenegro acquired independence on that day.
In addition, this day was also marked by the uprising of Montenegrins against the occupying forces of fascist Italy in 1941. The fighters of the resistance dated the beginning of the uprising to the date of proclamation of the independence of the country.
On July 13, 1941, an uprising against the occupying Italian authorities, which occupied its territory in April 1941, began in Montenegro. One day earlier, Montenegro became independent from Yugoslavia under the patronage of Italy. Montenegro became the satellite state of Italy, a kind of colony.
In the early morning of July 13, in the cities of Montenegro, one after another shootings began: the partisans began to break into the settlements and shoot at Italian carabinieri and gendarmes. On the first day, the guerrillas stormed the cities of Virpazar, Cevo, Rijeka Crnojevica and departed to the coastline of Sutomore.
On July 15, the insurgents took Mojkovac, Bioce, Spuz and Lijeva Rijeka.
On July 16, Andrijevica was released from the Italians
On July 20, the cities of Bijelo-Pole, Berane, Danilovgrad, Zhablyak and Kolashin were released.
On July 22 - Shavnik
On July 24 - Grahovo.In total, uprisings involved 32 thousand people.
In the course of the fighting, Italy lost 735 people , 1120 wounded and 2070 prisoners. Lost of insurgents: 72 killed and 53 wounded.
By the beginning of August, 5 divisions of elite Alpine mountain-rifle parts of the Italian army were transferred to Montenegro and by August 14 control over the cities had been restored.
Despite the fact that the Italians succeeded in suppressing the uprising, it showed that partisan activity has enormous potential. The events of July 13 became the symbol of Montenegrin resistance and the desire to fight for the freedom of their country.The guerrilla resistance continued until the complete liberation of Montenegro in December 1944.
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