Poisonous plants and dangerous animals of Montenegro.

Do you plan to spend summer in Montenegro? It means that you should know about poisonous plants and dangerous animals! Tell your children, relatives, close people and people you know.
All parts of the plant are poisonous and contain a range of cardiac glycosides (Oleandrinum, Cornerine, etc.) Consumed sap of Oleander causes severe torminas, vomit, diarrhea, etc. It has also influence on nervous system (up to coma). Cardiac glycosides cause cardiac arrest.
Oleander in blossom is so sweet-smelling, that being in room can cause a severe head ache and even faintness. Poisonous sap of Oleander causes blindness when gets to one's eyes. Oleander's poison keeps its properties even when the plant dies (for example, if you use dead branches of Oleander to set a fire during a picnic and use it for cooking).

Ivy flowers have foul smell, berries and leaves are very toxic. They can cause skin diseases for those who have sensitive skin. Besides, it is highly dangerous to consume any parts of the plant for food.

Cow parsnip
During vegetation period, different parts of the plant (leaves, caulis, fruits) accumulate photodynamically active furocoumarins. In case of skin contact, it causes deep dermatitis classified by burn type.
The following cases were recorded: dermatitis up to third degree, death of younger children from multiple skin burn.
More often dermatitis caused by Cow parsnip sap show itself as pomphus with different dark spots. It can take up to 3-6 month to subside. If considerable dermhelminthiasis, disease recurrence possible after one year. In case of body solarization, new brown spots can appear after burns.
The presence of coumarins and furocoumarins in sap, making your body more sensitive to sun light, is exactly the main "evil" of this plant. Its sap getting into the skin is able to strengthen skin pigmentation of humans and animals under the influence of sun light (ultraviolet) and cause dermatitis, which are often called "burns".

Just vipers are practically dangerous. If you see snake in the river or pond, more likely it is a kind of harmless Natrix (water snake or grass snake). Unlike to viper, water snake has two bright-yellow sports on temporal region.
Its head is oval and long, and viper's one is V-shaped and short. Water snake's pupil is round, of course if you will manage to notice it, and viper's pupil is vertical. Water snake's tail is thin and long, viper's - short and thick.

Caspian whipsnake
This snake is nontoxic, but still dangerous. Its length reaches more than 2m. The color of the upper part of body can be various shades of olive, without pattern. Belly is yellow, pale-yellow, and sometimes reddish. Usually it has yellow spot around its eyes.
You can see it on plain area, among shrub vegetation near roads, on mountain slopes. It often hides in earth cracks, slope detritus and rodents' hole.         
Caspian whipsnake is also called Natrix. If troubled, it is very aggressive. While attacking, it can jump 1,5-2m high. Its bites are deep and painful and teeth particles are left inside of the wound, and can cause blood poisoning.
Such snakes like silence. Try stay calm and watch your feet. While walking new trails without guide over mountain area.

Blavor (legless lizard)
It looks like lizard, but in reality it is a lizard. It is not dangerous, non toxic and harmless. It can reach up to 135cm.
Color is solid, ash-brown or grey. Usually it hides between stones and grass. You can also meet Blavor on the roads and mountain trails. It eats rodents, spiders, lizards and snakes.
That's why local people try to make it live near their homes, as a protection from rats, mice and poison snakes.

Snakes are dangerous animals. Do not catch or provoke them for a nice shot or for joy, even if they are small and seem weak. Snakes are never attack without warming. If snake takes a dangerous position, step back slowly. Avoid sharp, frighten moves! It is strongly prohibited to shout, put your hands in front of you for protection, turn your back on snake or run...

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